Category Archives: elementary

## All set endomorphisms of a finite field are polynomial

Let $F$ be a finite field. Did you know that given any function $\varphi:F\to F$, there exists a polynomial $p\in F[x]$ such that $\varphi(a) = p(a)$ for all $a\in F$? It's not hard to produce such the required polynomial: $$p(x) = \sum_{a\in F} \left( \varphi(a)\prod_{b\not= a}(x – b)\prod_{b\not=a}(a-b)^{-1} \prod \right)$$ This works because every […]

## When Is Squaring and Cubing a Group Homomorphism?

Let $G$ be a group. Define $\varphi:G\to G$ by $\varphi(x) = x^2$. When is $\varphi$ a homomorphism? Clearly, $\varphi$ is a homomorphism whenever $G$ is abelian. Conversely, if $\varphi$ is a homomorphism then for any $x,y\in G$, we get $xyxy = \varphi(xy) = \varphi(x)\varphi(y) = x^2y^2$. So, $xyxy = xxyy$. Canceling the $x$ from the […]